Labranda , Euromos and Herakleia ancient city

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Labranda

Labranda, the sacred area of ​​Zeus Labrandos, is 14 km from Milas. It is located in the northeast. The oldest finds date back to about 600 BC. In the 6th and 5th centuries, the sanctuary consisted of a small artificial correction that was later used as a temple terrace. A war was fought in the holy area in 497 and the Caria army was defeated by the Persian army with their allies Milet. mö.4.yy. it is the most important period of the temple. In the time of the satraps Mausolos (377-352) and Idrieus (351-344), this place gains a new look. In 355, Mausolos escapes an assassination at the last moment in the annual sacrificial feast in Labranda. This is due to the happy liberation that a wide range of construction activities have been initiated here, such as a series of artificial terraces, a small Doric building, a monumental staircase, two large banquet halls (androns), a porch building (oikoi), stoa and the temple of Zeus with columns around. These construction activities ended with the death of Idrieus in 344. The use of the sanctuary as a cult place ended with the great fire disaster that occurred in the 4th century AD. Starting from Mylasa to the holy area in Labranda and 8 m. It was reached by the sacred road that was wide. The floor traces on this road have been preserved until today. The area is passed through one of the two entrance buildings. The building called Dor building is located just east of the southern propylon building with its irregular formation close to a rectangle. It is a Doric building with a four-column front courtyard, facing the north, with a marble facade. In the Roman Period, this small building was included in the bath complex. The propylon area is bordered by a wall that shows impressive masonry in the north, opening to long rooms with four wide passages. These long rooms are warehouse or treasure rooms. They form part of a large building complex. This is the first building started by the Hekatomnos Family. It is a temple-like building with a rectangular cella and a large rectangular recess at the back. It is the best protected building of the settlement. It is the same as the Andron of Mausolos as a plan. Traces of low plastered benches with cedars used during the sacred feast are found in the cella. In the niche on the back wall, statues of the king family Idrieus and his wife Ada and Zeus were hidden. OikThis building was probably used both as an archive of the sanctuary and for the workplace of priests and for a sacred feast. There is a steep slope to the north of the sanctuary. On the southern slope of this, on the temple, 15 m. There is a tomb long. The grave chamber and its entrance are vaulted. The roof is made of granite in Dor layout. 200 m from the sanctuary. west of it there is a stadium reinforced with a retaining wall.

Euromos

Euromos was the most important city in the region after Mylasa in ancient times. The name of the city is BC. It appears in the form of "Kyramos" or "Hyramos" in the 5th century. Euromos, which means “strong” in Greek, must have started to be used as a result of Mausolos' Hellenization policy. According to what we learned from an inscription, Euromos had a cross with northern neighbor Herakleia. The reason for this was the Mylasa officials, who were sent to Herakleia by an envoy sent to Herakleia, who was influenced by the looting by the Heraclians looting Euromos territory and taking holy and special goods. Although the ruins of the city are very worn, one of the best-preserved half-dozen temples in Asia is the Temple of Zeus in Euromos. A.D. It was constructed in Corinthian order with 6 columns and 9 columns on the sides of the building from the 2nd century. It is understood that the decoration work was abandoned since 3 columns on the north side of the building and the column on the southwestern corner were non-grooved. There are votive inscription boards on all of the columns on the faces facing north and west. Five columns were presented by physicist and public official Menekrates and his daughter Tryphania, and seven by another public official named Leo Quintos. The big but rather bad theater is located in the recess of the slope just above the plain. The northern parts of the 5 rows of seats that are visible are well preserved. Several columns of the stoa surrounding the agora on a flat area are visible. There is another stoa further west. In one of the columns of this stoa, there is a long inscription giving information about the monetary aid of Kallisthenes to the city and the bias of Iasos. In the 1970s, the Temple of Zeus and its surroundings. Dr. Excavation and renovation works were carried out by Ümit Serdaroğlu, but these studies were left unfinished in the following years.

Herakleia

The Ancient City of Herakleia remains in today's Kapıkırı Village and is 39 kilometers from Milas. The city had Latmos Bay, an extension of the Aegean Sea in Antiquity. However, as a result of filling with the alluviums brought by the Menderes River, the bay has turned into Bafa Lake today. Although the city is geographically located on the border with Ionia and Caria, even in the Ionian region, it has been accepted as a typical Carian city with its character and historical background.

The city got its name from the famous mythology hero Herakles. While its name was Latmos in the 8th century BC, the Caria Satrap in the time of the Persians fell to Mausolos. As a result of Alexander's Asian expedition, it was tied to the sovereignty of the Alexander Empire, and later the Seleucids. Herakleia, which lost its former importance upon the cessation of its relationship with the sea in the 1st century BC, became the hiding place of Christian monks due to difficulty in transportation. The ancient city, built on a very hilly and rocky land, is surrounded by a 6.5 kilometer long wall reinforced with 65 towers. The city walls, showing smooth rectangular and square stone work, were built in the Hellenistic Period. Herakleia, which is settled according to the Hippodamos city plan, is one of the examples where the grid-shaped parcel and the street plan are cut well. The Temple of Athena, located on the rocky terrain stretching behind the harbor, is one of the city's best preserved buildings. It is a two-column Hellenistic structure in the style of Templum in Antis. The agora, located to the east of the Temple of Athena, has two floors and the first floor has survived today.

Temple of Athena

Agora is located in the center of the city, just east of the Temple of Athena. The south side of the Agora, which was built in the Hellenistic period, has two floors and the first floor walls and shops have survived to the present day. It is understood that it is surrounded by galleries that can still be watched from place to place. The northeast walls of the city are in a very good condition. The theater is located in the north east of the city. The walls of the Skene building and the seating rows of the first cavea can be seen. The apsidal cella and pronaos of the Endymion Sanctuary on the side of the road leading to the city's coast and islands can be seen. According to mythology, the Moon Goddess Selene falls in love with Endymion, a beautiful young shepherd in the Latmos mountains, and condemns her to eternal sleep. The frescoes that adorn the ceilings and walls of these ordeals depict Jesus' life, Mary and the Saints. The surface research carried out by the German Anneliese PESCHLOW in Herakleia Ancient City continues every year. Since 1991, studies have been carried out to examine the settlements in the part of the mountain within the borders of the ancient city of Herakleia. In this context, considering the existence of a very old rain and rock cult at the summit, the remains of prehistoric periods were investigated in line with a specific target. 170 rock paintings are known today in Latmos, where the first rock paintings were found in 1994.

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