Kalymnos, (Greek: Κάλυμνος) is a Greek island and municipality in the southeastern Aegean Sea. It belongs to the Dodecanese island chain, between the islands of Kos (south, at a distance of 12 km (7 mi)) and Leros (north, at a distance of less than 2 km (1 mi)): the latter is linked to it through a series of islets. Kalymnos lies between two and five hours away by sea from Rhodes.
In 2011 the island had a population of 16,001, making it the third most populous island of the Dodecanese, after Kos and Rhodes. It is known in Greece for the affluence of much of its population, and also stands as both the wealthiest member of the Dodecanese and one of the wealthiest Greek islands overall. The Municipality of Kalymnos, which includes the populated offshore islands of Pserimos (pop. 80), Telendos (94), Kalolimnos (2), and Pláti (2), as well as several uninhabited islets, has a combined land area of 134.544 square kilometres (51.948 sq mi) and a total population of 16,179 inhabitants
The island is roughly rectangular in shape, with a length of 21 km (13 mi) and a width of 13 km (8 mi), and covers an area of 109 square kilometres (42 sq mi). Moreover, on the north side there is a peninsula which stretches in a northwest direction.
Kalymnos is mostly mountainous with complicated topography. There are three main chains going from W-NW to E-SE, and a fourth which extends NW the length of the peninsula. The coastline is very irregular, with many sheltered coves. There are some springs, one among them being thermal. The soil is mainly limestone-based, but in the valleys there is a compact bank of volcanic tuff, the relic of an ancient volcano, located in Vigles, between the villages of Myrties and Kantouni. The island is mainly barren, except for the two fertile valleys of Vathys and Pothia, where olives, oranges and vines are grown. There is also an ostrich farm in Argos, near the airport.
Earthquakes are a frequent occurrence around Kalymnos, a fact that is connected with the volcanoes in surrounding islands. The last earthquake occurred was the 2017 Aegean Sea earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7Mw, which injured two people in Kalymnos.
History of the island
Kalymnos has been inhabited since the Neolitic Age. Its first inhabitants were the Kares and then the Phoenicians, followed by the Dorians (the name Damos remains until today as well as the important ruins of the Temple of Apollo). Homer mentions Kalymnos as Kalydna and its participation with 30 ships in the Trojan war. Captured by persians, it loses its autonomy, and is then released and forms an alliance with Athens. Later, it is occpied by the king Mausolus of Halicarnassus, it become released, gets occupied by the Romans, Turks, Venetians, again by the Turks and in 1912 is is granted to the Italians. In 1949, it gets incorporated in Greek State. In modern hisory , spomge diving, sponge processing and trade as well as fishing flourihes. With a population of 16.179 inhabitants, it has its own airport with daily connection to Athens, a majör port, with daily connections to Rhodes, Kos and Piraeus, three museums and a modern archeological meseum. The island is deal for climbing, diving and watersports. The current capital is Pothia, the formercapital was Hora. Some of its imortant settlements are Argos, Panormos, Myrties- Massouri, Arginonta Skalia, Emporios, Vathys, Vothynoi and Vlygadia. A dominant place holds the Monastery of the local St. Savvas. Where the relic is kept, gathering religious tourism.